Puromycin is an aminonuclease antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces alboniger which induces apoptosis in cells by interfering with RNA function, leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Toxic to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Believed to act as an acyl-tRNA analogue causing premature chain termination through covalent peptidyl-puromycin condensation; inducing apoptosis in a variety of cells. This induction of apoptosis was found to parallel apoptosis caused by deprivation of neuronal growth factor (NGF) in developing chick sympathetic neurons; however, this apoptotic activity can be inhibited by several transcriptional inhibitors such as: actinomycin D (sc-200906) and α-amanitin (sc-202440) which has lead researchers to hypothesize that apoptosis is triggered through the transcription of particular genes. Shown to arrest cells in G2/M phase. Puromycin is an inhibitor of CD13 and DPP7. Puromycin is also a substrate of Mdr-1.
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