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Penicillin G procaine is a combination of penicillin G and procaine. Penicillin G is a hydrophobic, β-lactam antibiotic produced by Penicillium spp.. As an antibiotic, penicillin G is noted to posses effectiveness mainly against gram-positive organisms. Some gram-negative organisms such as Neiserria gonorrhoeae and Neiserria meningitidis are also reported to be susceptible to penicillin G. Penicillin G is also known as benzylpenicillin and contains a 6′ phenylacetyl side chain. In acid aqueous solutions, penicillin is reported to decompose into penillic acid and penilloic acid.
Procaine is a noted sodium channel blocker with a variety of inhibitory effects. In skeletal muscle, procaine has been reported to inhibit calcium-induced calcium release (CICR). Procaine is also noted to act as a DNA methylation inhibitor and to cause demethylation and reactivation of methylation-silenced genes such as RARβ and GSTP1. WIF-1 is noted to be reactivated in a cancer cell line and to downregulate the Wnt canonical pathway. In studies utilizing a neuroblastoma cell line (SHEP), procaine is reported to induce neuronal apoptosis in a manner correlated with lipid solubility of the compound. In an adult mouse muscle cell line (HEK293), the presence of procaine is reported to potently inhibit AChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptors).
Penicillin G is also available alone (sc-344973) and in salt forms such as Penicillin G sodium (sc-257971) and penicillin G potassium (sc-255411). Procaine is available alone (sc-296134) and in its salt form, procaine HCl (sc-250776).
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