Romidepsin strongly inhibits HDAC1 and HDAC2 with IC50 of 1.6 nM and 3.9 nM, respectively, but is relatively weak in inhibiting HDAC4 and HDAC6 with IC50 25 nM and 790 nM, respectively. Romidepsin inhibits the growth of U-937, K562, and CCRF-CEM cells with IC50 of 5.92 nM, 8.36 nM, and 6.95 nM, respectively. Romidepsin promotes apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells at a concentration corresponding to that at which H3 and H4 acetylation and HDAC inhibition occurs, selectively involving activation of caspase 8 and effector caspase 3, as well as down-regulation of c-FLIP protein. In 11 of 13 (85%) renal cell carcinoma cell lines and in 16 of 37 (43%) other cancer cell lines, Romidepsin treatment up-regulates tumor death receptors, and potentiates natural killer (NK)-mediated tumor killing. Romidepsin exhibits concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against a panel of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines.
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