(R)-Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen produced from the metabolism of the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen daidzein by human intestinal microflora. It is a chiral molecule that exists in two enantiomeric forms. In contrast to the estrogen receptor selectivity of (S)-equol , (R)-equol is a weaker ER agonist that binds to ERα and ERβ with Ki values of 27.4 and 15.4 nM, respectively. The (R)-enantiomer demonstrates higher ER agonist activity at ERα compared to ERβ.
1 Setchell, K.D.R., Clerici, C., Lephart, E.D., et al. S-equol, a potent ligand for estrogen receptor b, is the exclusive enantiomeric form of the soy isoflavone metabolite produced by human intestinal bacterial flora. Am J Clin Nutr 81 1072-1079 (2005). 2 Muthyala, R.S., Ju, Y.H., Sheng, S., et al. Equol, a natural estrogenic metabolite from soy isoflavones: Convenient preparation and resolution of R- and S-equols and their differing binding and biological activity through estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Bioorg Med Chem 12 1559-1567 (2004).
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