Procaine hydrochloride is a salt of the compound Procaine. Procaine is a noted sodium channel blocker with a variety of inhibitory effects. In skeletal muscle, Procaine has been reported to inhibit calcium-induced calcium release (CICR). Procaine is also noted to act as a DNA methylation inhibitor and to cause demethylation and reactivation of methylation-silenced genes such as RARβ and GSTP1. WIF-1 is noted to be reactivated in a cancer cell line and to downregulate the Wnt canonical pathway. In studies utilizing a neuroblastoma cell line (SHEP), Procaine is reported to induce neuronal apoptosis in a manner correlated with lipid solubility of the compound. In an adult mouse muscle cell line (HEK293), the presence of procaine is reported to potently inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Procaine is available alone (sc-296134) and in its salt form as Procaine HCl (sc-250776).
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