Muscone, originally collected from male musk deer ventral glands, is a potent antiinflammatory agent that has been reported to reduce proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. This compound has also been shown to reverse IL-1β-induced upregulation of IL-1β, TNFα, NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase), Cox-2, aggrecanase 2, matrix metalloproteinase, and nitric oxide. In rat liver, Muscone has been shown to induce CYP4F3 (cytochrome P-450) and to inhibit glutamate-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells via maintenance of mitochondral membrane potential and inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ overload. Additional studies have reported Muscone to be weakly estrogenically active in vitro.
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