Melatonin is an indoleamine neurohormone found across plants and animals, produced endogenously from serotonin (5-HT) and secreted in animals as a regulatory signal for synchronization of the circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle. The melatonin receptor system, consisting of the MEL-1A-R, MEL-1B-R, and MT3 subtypes, demonstrates particular plasticity and modularity - antagonists such as Luzindole (sc-202700) and 2-Phenylmelatonin (sc-203466) show modification of systemic responses to the Melatonin signal without impeding activation of the receptors by Melatonin. Powerful antioxidant activity is associated with Melatonin, and it is known to provide protection to lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative damage. Several antioxidant enzymes are shown to be upregulated by Melatonin, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutases, and catalase. Melatonin also scavenges free radicals as a terminal antioxidant, reacting to generate stable end products and terminate radical chain reactions. Free movement through the blood-brain barrier positions Melatonin as a particularly significant endogenous antioxidant. Melatonin is a rat NOS1 (nNOS) inhibitor. Melatonin is an activator of MEL-1A-R and MEL-1B-R.
1. Dubocovich, M.L., 1988. FASEB J. 2: 2765-2773. PMID: 2842214 2. Dubocovich, M.L. 1995. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 16: 50-56. PMID: 7762083 3. Dubocovich, M.L., et al. 1998. FASEB J. 12: 1211-1220. PMID: 9737724 4. Reiter, R.J., et al. 2001. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 939: 200-215. PMID: 11462772 5. Hardeland, R. 2005. Endocrine. 27: 119-130. PMID: 16217125 6. Boutin, J.A., et al. 2005. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 26: 412-419. PMID: 15992934
Following reconstiution, aliquot and freeze (-20°C). Stock solutions are stable for up to 3 months at -20°C.
Soluble in water (0.1 mg/ml), ethanol (8 mg/ml), benzene, chloroform, methanol, DMSO (50 mM), toluene, and dilute aqueous acid, and very slightly soluble in petroleum ether.
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SinghakumarSinghakumar, R. et al. (PubMed 26366944) used Melatonin on adult C57BL/6 mice that had undergone methamphetamine (METH) induced alterations in neurogenesis and post-synaptic proteinsrelated to learning and memory functions in the hippocampus. The results showed that METH caused a decrease in neuronal phenotypes as determined by the expressions of nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and beta-III tubulin while causing an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. These effects could be attenuated by Melatonin pretreatment. -SCBT Publication Review
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