Hemin chloride, a heme oxygenase 1 inducer, is a porphyrin complex. At a concentration of 20 mM Hemin chloride demonstrated the significance of heme in myotube maturation by increasing size, number, cross-striations, and contraction frequency and strength of myotubes. The compound has been observed to induce cGMP formation through induction of guanylate cyclase. Hemin chloride has been noted to stimulate calcium-dependent K+ channels and modulate fluid transport and Na+ in the loop of henle in rat studies. Hemin has also been documented to give rise to active chloride secretion in Caco-2 cells. In cadmium injured rat testes, hemin chloride demonstrated anti-apoptotic, antiinflamatory and antioxidant properties. Through reactive oxygen species of ERK-1/2-Elk-1 and NF-κB, hemin chloride has been shown to upregulate Egr-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. It has also been used in solution to prepare agar medium for the cultivation of distinct bacteria.
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