Caffeine is a CNS stimulant that blocks Adenosine A1-R and Adenosine A2A-R. Caffeine is also a cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Caffeine interferes with the uptake and storage of Ca2+ by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle and prevents apoptosis and cell cycle effects induced by various chemicals. Caffeine inhibits cellular DNA repair mechanism and displays anti-inflammatory properties. Caffeine is found in tea leaves, coffee beans, cocoa beans, matε leaves, guarana paste and kola nuts.
Soluble in water (16 mg/ml) at 20° C, ethanol (15 mg/ml), chloroform, ether (very slightly), water (200 mg/ml) at 80° C, boiling water (666 mg/ml), acetone (20 mg/ml), DMSO, and Hot Methanol.
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HuertasHuertas, P. et al. (PubMed 19202191) used Caffeine, a CNS stimulant that blocks adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and acts as a cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, to allow cells with gross chromosomal rearrangements to overcome the G2/M checkpoint and enter mitosis. -SCBT Publication Review
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