The four tocotrienols (α, β δ, and γ and four tocopherols (α, β, δ, and γ) are forms of vitamin E, which are known for their antioxidant activity. Tocotrienols are found at high concentrations in rice bran and palm oil. Recent studies indicate that tocotrienols may be more effective antioxidants than α-tocopherol, the most abundant form of vitamin E . Compared to other tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol exhibits the most potent neuroprotective actions in rat striatal neurons. At concentrations of 0.1-10 μM, α-tocotrienol significantly suppresses H2O2-induced cell death and provides protection from S-nitrocysteine-induced cell death and SIN-1 toxicity in a concentration dependent manner. HT4 cells, that are microinjected with 10-19 mol of α-tocotrienol into the cytosol, are protected from glutamate-induced cell death by suppressing early activation of 12-lipoxygenase and c-Src kinase
1 Kamal-Eldin, A., Appelqvist, L. The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids 31 671-701 (1996). 2 Osakada, F., Hashino, A., Kume, T., et al. α-Tocotrienol provides the most potent neuroprotection among vitamin E analogs on cultured striatal neurons. Neuropharmacology 47 904-915 (2004). 3 Khanna, S., Roy, S., Slivka, S., et al. Neuroprotective properties of the natural vitamin E α-tocotrienol. Stroke 36 2258-2264 (2005).
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