Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers a variety of gene editing products to target kinases and phosphatases using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. A protein kinase is an enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, through a process called phosphorylation. This usually results in a structural and/or functional change of the substrate and changes its enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. Kinases are known to regulate the majority of cellular pathways, especially those involved in signal transduction, glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, transcription, and cell migration. A phosphatase is an enzyme that hydrolyses phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group, thus removing phosphate groups from proteins. This is the opposite action from a kinase, though phosphatases regulate similar pathways. Phosphatases are grouped into two main categories: metalloenzymes, which are dependent on the presence of two or more metal ions in their active sites for activity, and non-metalloenzymes. To knockdown expression of kinases and phosphatases, Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers target-specific CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout (KO) Plasmids and CRISPR Double Nickase Plasmids.To activate transcription of kinase and phosphatase genes, Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers target-specific CRISPR/dCas9 Activation Plasmids and CRISPR Lenti Activation Systems.