Rifaximin is an antibiotic that inhibits RNA synthesis and acts as a PXR (pregnane-X-receptor) activator. Rifaximin is a derivative of rifamycin that has been shown to act strongly against Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, with less activity against Enterobacteriaceae. Rifaximin has been used in a variety of gastrointestinal and intestinal epithelial cell studies. Rifaximin reduced the number of colon tumors and suppressed expression of TNFα and Il-1β induced in a colon cancer, PXR-humanized mouse model.
1. Gillis, J.C. and Brogden, R.N. 1995. Drugs. 49: 467-484. PMID: 7774516
2. Mencarelli, A., et al. 2010. Biochem Pharmacol. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 20816942
3. Cottreau, J., et al. 2010. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 8: 747-760. PMID: 20586560
4. Cheng, J., et al. 2010. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 335: 32-41. PMID: 20627999