Resolvins are a family of potent lipid mediators derived from both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In addition to being anti-inflammatory, resolvins promote the resolution of the inflammatory response back to a non-inflamed state. Resolvin D2 is produced physiologically from the sequential oxygenation of DHA by 15- and 5-lipoxygenase and functions to dampen excessive neutrophil trafficking to sites of inflammation. It reduces zymosan-stimulated PMN infiltration by 70% at doses as low as 10 pg per mouse and significantly reduces PAF-stimulated leukocyte adherence and emigration at 1 nM. Also, by stimulating nitric oxide production, resolvin D2 dose dependently decreases leukocyte-endothelial interactions. In a murine model of sepsis, resolvin D2 reduces leukocyte and PMN infiltration, decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and promotes phagocyte-mediated bacterial clearance.
1 Hong, S., Gronert, K., Devchand, P.R., et al. Novel docosatrienes and 17S-resolvins generated from docosahexaenoic acid in murine brain, human blood, and glial cells. Autacoids in anti-inflammation. J Biol Chem 278(17) 14677-14687 (2003). 2 Ariel, A., Serhan, C.N. Resolvins and protectins in the termination program of acute inflammation. Trends Immunol 28(4) 176-183 (2007). 3 Spite, M., Norling, L.V., Summers, L., et al. Resolvin D2 is a potent regulator of leukocytes and controls microbial sepsis. Nature 461(7268) 1287-1291 (2009).
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