Phosphatidic Acid, Dioleoyl has been shown to activate PKC α, ε, or ζ isotypes in the cytosol of COS cells. This compound not only stimulates PKC-ζ-mediated phosphorylation of distinctive substrates, but additionally causes an upward shift in electrophoretic mobility of PKC &zeta. Furthermore, experiments have reported Phosphatidic Acid to be generated by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, via phospholipase D (PLD). Mechanistic studies suggest activation of PLD by insulin and consequential generation of Phosphatidic Acid which then induces Raf-1 translocation to cell membranes. Raf-1 is an essential component to the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, and once it has crossed over to the plasma membrane, other factors may activate it through phosphorylation.
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