Gramicidin from Bacillus aneurinolyticus (Bacillus brevis) is a linear polypeptide antibiotic with a mixture of gramicidin A, B, C, and D. Gramicidin D is a channel-forming ionophore that flip-flops slowly across the membrane and is a known Pgp substrate and surprisingly was found to inhibit Pgp ATPase activity. This inhibition was reversed by other Pgp substrates suggesting a common drug binding site among MDR substrate-type drugs and chemosensitizers.
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