Dihydrolipoic acid is a carboxylic acid containing two thiols groups. It is known that the R enantiomer is biochemically significant. Dihydrolipoic acid is used as a component in hydrophilic nanomaterial preparations. Studies suggest that Dihydrolipoic acid induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC-B5) at 50-100μM concentrations. In addition, Dihydrolipoic acid increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytoplasmic free calcium and nitric oxide (NO) levels. This also leads to loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Due to the amphipathic nature of the molecule it can act as an antioxidant in both hydrophilic and lipophilic environments.
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