Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone isolated from roots of Morinda elliptica, has been reported as a selective and potent inhibitor of Lck (p56lck tyrosine kinase) activity. Mechanistic studies have shown Damnacanthal to be mixed noncompetitive with the ATP site, competitive with the peptide binding site, and bind nonspecifically to membrane lipids. Other studies have shown Damnacanthal to have immunomodulatory effects by activating mouse thymocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In addition, Viral Protein R, a protein that contributes to apoptosis, multiple cytopathic effects, and G2 cell cycle arrest has been proven to be inhibited by Damnacanthal.
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