Azaspiracid-1 is an activator of JNK (c-Jun-N-terminal kinase)and caspases. It is a cellular growth inhibitor and inducer of cytoskeletal alterations. Azaspiracid-1 is also a modulator of intracellular cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and calcium levels. It acts as an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis in human T lymphocyte cells. Azaspiracid-1 is a potent teratogen to finfish and also acts as a cytotoxin to mammalian cells.
Multiple organ damage caused by a new toxin azaspiracid, isolated from mussels produced in Ireland: E. Ito, et al.; Toxicon 38, 917 (2000) Azaspiracid-1, a potent, nonapoptotic new phycotoxin with several cell targets: Y. Roman, et al.; Cell. Signal. 14, 703 (2002) Teratogenic effects of azaspiracid-1 identified by microinjection of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos: J.R. Coleman, et al.; Toxicon 45, 881 (2005) Cytotoxic and cytoskeletal effects of azaspiracid-1 on mammalian cell lines: M.J. Twiner, et al.; Toxicon 45, 891 (2005) Azaspiracids modulate intracellular pH levels in human lymphocytes: A. Alfonso, et al.; BBRC 346, 1091 (2006) Cell growth inhibition and actin cytoskeleton disorganization induced by azaspiracid-1 structure-activity studies: N. Vilarino, et al.; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 19, 1459 (2006) The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase is involved in the neurotoxic effect of azaspiracid-1: C. Vale, et al.; Cell Physiol. Biochem. 20, 957 (2007) Effects of azaspiracid-1, a potent cytotoxic agent, on primary neuronal cultures. A structure-activity relationship study: C. Vale, et al.; J. Med. Chem. 50, 356 (2007) Irreversible cytoskeletal disarrangement is independent of caspase activation during in vitro azaspiracid toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells: N. Vilarino, et al.; Biochem. Pharmacol. 74, 327 (2007) Transcriptional profiling and inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in human T lymphocyte cells by the marine toxin azaspiracid: M.J. Twiner, et al.; Genomics 91, 289 (2008)
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