Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) is an important second messenger and intracellular regulator in many biological processes and, in particular, is used in intracellular signal transduction to convey the cAMP-dependent pathway. cAMP is derived from ATP and is an adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. In eukaryotic cells, cAMP function in many biochemical processes, including the regulation of glycogen, lipid and sugar metabolism. In these roles, cAMP works by activating PKA (protein kinase A). Additionally, cAMP works independently of PKA in activating calcium channels and proving a pathway for the release of growth hormone.
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