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Antibody Information
Antibodies are useful tools for the immune system to combat pathogens, but also for the biology research scientist to conduct a variety of experiments which can probe ever further into the mysteries of life. Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc. is proud to present the largest catalog of antibodies available to the global research community, and the siRNAs, protocols and reagents necessary to conduct your experiments. Our ever expanding collection includes antibodies targeting a vast number of mammalian cellular targets including Tumor Suppressors, Cell Cycle regulators, Kinases and Phosphatases, Signaling Intermediates, Structural Proteins, Transcription Factors, Lymphocyte Signaling molecules, Synthesis and Degradation machinery proteins, Cell Adhesion and Trafficking proteins. We also offer antibodies directed against various chemicals and other non-mammalian targets, including a variety of microbes, S. Cerevisiae, C. elegans, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, X. laevis and D. rerio.
The structure of the antibody may appear simple, but the extraordinary nature of the immune system to produce specific antibodies to an inexhaustible number and variety of antigens is nothing short of mind-boggling. The antibodies bind their respective antigens through the complementarity regions (shown in light blue). These regions of the protein are encoded by the hypervariable regions of the immunoglobulin gene and their sequences are determined by the processes of recombination and somatic hypermutation1.
Antigen specificity allows the immune system to combat a number of pathogens and maintain molecular memory for possible future encounters, however, it can become harmful to the organism if those antibodies recognize self-antigens. For the researcher, antibodies have become a necessary tool to identify and enrich specific molecules in a number of contexts: in Western blots, ELISAs, ChIPs, immunoprecipitations and immunostaining of cells and tissues. For the clinician, antibodies are becoming more useful as therapeutics for the treatment of various cancers and immune disorders2. The number and variety of useful applications for antibodies continues to grow as we learn more about these exciting molecules.
Antibody FragmentsAntibody IsotypesAntibody Product Types


Intact IgF(ab')2F(ab')ScFvIgAIgGIgDIgEIgM 
While antibodies operate in the body as intact molecules and direct the immune response primarily through the action of the Fc region, scientists have developed methods for generating fragments of antibodies for various purposes. These fragments are generated by enzyme digestion and fragment purification or by various recombinant techniques3.  Antibodies of different isotypes, bearing unique Fc regions (depicted in dark blue), travel to distinct tissue compartments of the body and elicit unique responses. The removal of the Fc region to varying degrees, as in the antibody fragments depicted, changes the physiologic and experimental properties of the antibody1.  Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc. offers a variety of products for secondary detection of distinct antibody isotypes in addition to F(ab')2 secondary antibodies.
The conjugation of antibodies to fluorophoresenzymes and biotin is helpful for the isolation and detection of antigens. We offer a variety of biotinHRPfluorescent and Alkaline Phosphatase conjugated secondary antibodies for your research needs. In addition, we now offer a number of Alexa Fluor™ conjugated primary antibodies and control antibodies.


Antibody Product Types
Monoclonal definition: refers to antibody molecules of singular epitope specificity originally produced by one B-cell and sharing identical sequence.
Polyclonal definition: antibody molecules which differ in their epitope binding and complementarity region amino acid sequence, however share overall target specificity.
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by hybridomas and are exact in their target epitope binding. We recommend monoclonals for the detection of highly expressed proteins and for flow cytometry,or other applications where exact target binding is necessary to prevent false positives. Monoclonal antibodies can also be useful for detecting changes in protein structure or post-translational modifications.
Polyclonal antibodies are useful for detecting proteins which have lower expression levels as more antibodies can bind a single protein molecule, thus enhancing the detection signal. Polyclonals generated against full-length recombinant protein targets are specifically recommended for immunoprecipitations and other techniques involving native protein conformation. When conducting an immunoprecipitation, maximized antibody binding is necessary to ensure pull-down of the target and any potential binding partners, in spite of the regions of the target protein which may be blocked by those binding partners.
Peptide polyclonal antibodies are produced following immunization to a peptide carefully selected from the target sequence. Because these polyclonal antibodies recognize only a particular portion of the target protein, in an unfolded state, these antibodies are recommended for Western blots gand immunofluorescent and  immunohistochemical staining.


Conference Information
   Cold Spring Harbor Conferences

   Keystone Symposia


Scientific Publications
   Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press


1 Janeway, C.A., et al. Immunobiology.(2001) Garland Science.
2 Waldmann, T.A. Immunotherapy: past, present and future. (2003) Nature Medicine 9: 269-277.
3 Coligan, J.E., et al. Current Protocols in Immunology. (2002) John Wiley & Sons, Inc.